AKTU B.Tech 2nd Year Syllabus for ME (Mechanical Engineering). There are six subjects in semester 3 and six subjects in semester 4 means there are twelve subjects in 2nd year for Mechanical Engineering. In this page you will find all the information about the your syllabus in detail.

## Semester 3

## THERMODYNAMICS

#### UNIT I

**Review of Fundamental Concepts and Definitions:**

Introduction- Basic Concepts: System, ControlVolume, Surrounding, Boundaries, Universe, Types of Systems, Macroscopic and Microscopicviewpoints, Concept of Continuum, Thermodynamic Equilibrium, State, Property, Process, Exact & Inexact Differentials, Cycle Reversibility Quasi – static Process, Irreversible Process, Causes of Irreversibility Energy and its forms, Work and heat (sign convention), Gas laws, Ideal gas, Real gas, Law of corresponding states, Property of mixture of gases, electrical, magnetic,gravitational, spring and shaft work.**Zeroth law of thermodynamics: **Concept of Temperature and its’ measurement, Temperature scales.**First law of thermodynamics:**

First Law for Flow Processes – Derivation of general energy equation for a control volume;Steady state steady flow processes including throttling; Examples of steady flow devices;Unsteady processes; examples of steady and unsteady I law applications for system andcontrol volume. Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, PMM-I. Steady flow systems and their analysis, Steady flow energy equation, Boilers, Condensers, Turbine, Throttling process, Pumps etc.

#### Unit II

**Second law of thermodynamics:**

Thermal reservoirs, Energy conversion, Heat engines, Efficiency, Reversed heat engine, Heat pump, Refrigerator, Coefficient of Performance, Kelvin Planck and Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics, Equivalence of the two statements. Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot cycle and Carnot engine, Carnot theorem and it’s corollaries, Thermodynamic Temperature Scale,PMM-II.**Entropy:** Clausius inequality, Concept of Entropy, Entropy change of pure substance in different thermodynamic processes, Tds equation, Principle of entropy increase, T-S diagram, Statement of the third law of thermodynamics.

#### Unit III

**Availability and Irreversibility:**

Available and unavailable energy, Availability and Irreversibility, Second law efficiency, Helmholtz & Gibb’s function.**Thermodynamic relations:**

Conditions for exact differentials. Maxwell relations, Clapeyron equation, Joule-Thompson coefficient and Inversion curve. Coefficient of volume expansion, Adiabatic and Isothermal compressibility.

#### Unit IV

**Properties of steam and Rankine cycle:**

Pure substance, Property of Pure Substance (steam), Triple point, Critical point, Saturation states, Subcooled liquid state, Superheated vapour state, Phase transformation process of water, Graphical representation of pressure, volume and temperature, P-T, P-V and P-h diagrams, T-S and H-S diagrams, use of property diagram, Steam-Tables &Moller chart, Dryness factor and it’s measurement, processes involving steam in closed and open systems. Simple Rankine cycle.**Air-water vapour mixture and Psychrometry:** Psychometric terms and their definitions, Psychometric chart, Different Psychometric processes and their representation on Psychometric chart.

#### Unit V

**Refrigeration Cycles:**

Reversed Carnot Cycle for gas and vapour. Refrigeration capacity, unit of refrigeration.Air Refrigeration cycles; Reversed Brayton Cycle and Bell Coleman Cycle. Vapour compression refrigeration cycle; simple saturated cycle and actual vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Analysis of cycles, effect of superheating, sub-cooling and change in evaporator and condenser pressure on performance of vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Refrigerants; their classification and desirable

properties. Vapour absorption refrigeration system.

## FLUID MECHANICS AND FLUID MACHINES

#### UNIT I

Definition of fluid, Newton’s law of viscosity, Units and dimensions-Properties of fluids,mass density, specific volume, specific gravity, viscosity, compressibility and surfacetension, Incompressible flow, Bernoulli’s equation and its applications – Pitot tube, orifice meter, venturi meter and bend meter, notches and weirs, momentum equation and its application to pipe bends.

#### Unit II

Continuum & free molecular flows. Steady and unsteady, uniform and non-uniform, laminar and turbulent flows, rotational and irrotational flows, compressible and incompressible flows, subsonic, sonic and supersonic flows, sub-critical, critical and supercritical flows, one, two- and threedimensional flows, streamlines, continuity equation for 3D and 1D flows, circulation, stream function and velocity potential. Buckingham’s Pi theorem, important dimensionless numbers and their significance.

#### Unit III

Equation of motion for laminar flow through pipes, turbulent flow, isotropic, homogenous turbulence, scale and intensity of turbulence, measurement of turbulence, eddy viscosity, resistance to flow, minor losses, pipe in series and parallel, power transmission through a pipe, siphon, water hammer, three reservoir problems and pipe networks. Boundary layer thickness, boundary layer over a flat plate, laminar boundary layer, application of momentum equation, turbulent boundary layer, laminar sublayer, separation and its control, Drag and lift, drag on a sphere, a two-dimensional cylinder, and an aerofoil, Magnus effect.

#### Unit IV

Introduction to hydrodynamic thrust of jet on a fixed and moving surface, Classification of turbines, Impulse turbines, Constructional details, Velocity triangles, Power and efficiency calculations, Governing of Pelton wheel. Francis and Kaplan turbines, Constructional details, Velocity triangles, Power and efficiency Principles of similarity, Unit and specific speed, Performance characteristics, Selection of water turbines.

#### Unit V

Classifications of centrifugal pumps, Vector diagram, Work done by impellor, Efficiencies of centrifugal pumps, Specific speed, Cavitation & separation, Performance characteristics. Reciprocating pump theory, Slip, Indicator diagram, Effect of acceleration, air vessels, Comparison of centrifugal and reciprocating pumps, Performance characteristics.

## ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY

#### UNIT I

Crystal Structure: Unit cells, Metallic crystal structures, Ceramics. Imperfection in solids:Point, line, interfacial and volume defects; dislocation strengthening mechanisms and slipsystems, critically resolved shear stress. Mechanical Property measurement: Tensile, compression and torsion tests; Young’smodulus, relations between true and engineering stress-strain curves, generalized Hooke’slaw, yielding and yield strength, ductility, resilience, toughness and elastic recovery;Hardness: Rockwell, Brinell and Vickers and their relation to strength.

#### Unit II

Static failure theories: Ductile and brittle failure mechanisms, Tresca, Von-mises, Maximumnormal stress, Mohr-Coulomb and Modified Mohr-Coulomb; Fracture mechanics:Introduction to Stressintensity factor approach and Griffith criterion. Fatigue failure: Highcycle fatigue, Stress-life approach, SN curve, endurance and fatigue limits, effects of meanstress using the Modified Goodman diagram; Fracture with fatigue, Introduction to non-destructive testing (NDT).

#### Unit III

Alloys, substitutional and interstitial solid solutions- Phase diagrams: Interpretation of binaryphase diagrams and microstructure development; eutectic, peritectic, peritectoid and monotectic reactions. Iron Iron-carbide phase diagram and microstructural aspects ofledeburite, austenite, ferrite and cementite, cast iron.

#### Unit IV

Heat treatment of Steel: Annealing, tempering, normalising and spheroidising, isothermaltransformation diagrams for Fe-C alloys and microstructure development. Continuouscooling curves and interpretation of final microstructures and propertiesaustempering, martempering, case hardening, carburizing, nitriding, cyaniding, carbo-nitriding, flame andinduction hardening, vacuum and plasma hardening.

#### Unit V

Alloying of steel, properties of stainless steel and tool steels, maraging steels- cast irons;grey, white, malleable and spheroidal cast irons- copper and copper alloys; brass, bronze andcupro-nickel; Aluminium and Al-Cu – Mg alloys- Nickel based superalloys and Titaniumalloys.

## Technical Communication

#### UNIT I

**Fundamentals of Technical Communication:** Technical Communication: Features; Distinction between General and Technical Communication; Language as a tool of Communication; Dimensions of Communication: Reading & comprehension; Technical writing: sentences; Paragraph; Technical style: Definition, types & Methods; The flow of Communication: Downward; upward, Lateral or Horizontal; Barriers to Communication.

#### Unit II

**Forms of Technical Communication:** Technical Report: Definition & importance; Thesis/Project writing: structure & importance; synopsis writing: Methods; Technical research Paper writing: Methods & style; Seminar & Conference paper writing; Expert Technical Lecture: Theme clarity; Analysis & Findings; 7 Cs of effective business writing: concreteness, completeness, clarity, conciseness, courtesy, correctness, consideration, C.V./Resume writing; Technical Proposal: Types, Structure & Draft.

#### Unit III

**Technical Presentation:** Strategies & Techniques Presentation: Forms; interpersonal Communication; Class room presentation; style; method; Individual conferencing: essentials: Public Speaking: method; Techniques: Clarity of substance; emotion; Humour; Modes of Presentation; Overcoming Stage Fear; Audience Analysis & retention of audience interest; Methods of Presentation: Interpersonal; Impersonal; Audience Participation: Quizzes & Interjections.

#### Unit IV

**Technical Communication Skills:** Interview skills; Group Discussion: Objective & Method; Seminar/Conferences Presentation skills: Focus; Content; Style; Argumentation skills: Devices: Analysis; Cohesion & Emphasis; Critical thinking; Nuances: Exposition narration & Description; effective business communication competence: Grammatical; Discourse competence: combination of expression & conclusion; Socio-linguistic competence: Strategic competence: Solution of communication problems with verbal and non verbal means.

#### Unit V

**Dimensions of Oral Communication & Voice Dynamics:** Code and Content; Stimulus & Response; Encoding process; Decoding process; Pronunciation Etiquette; Syllables; Vowel sounds; Consonant sounds; Tone: Rising tone; Falling Tone; Flow in Speaking; Speaking with a purpose; Speech & personality; Professional Personality Attributes: Empathy; Considerateness; Leadership; Competence.

## COMPUTER SYSTEM SECURITY

#### UNIT I

**Computer System Security Introduction:** Introduction, What is computer security and what to l earn? , Sample Attacks, The Marketplace for vulnerabilities, Error 404 Hacking digital India part 1 chase.**Hijacking & Defense:** Control Hijacking ,More Control Hijacking attacks integer overflow ,More Control Hijacking attacks format string vulnerabilities, Defense against Control Hijacking – Platform Defenses, Defense against Control Hijacking – Run-time Defenses, Advanced Control Hijacking attacks.

#### Unit II

**Confidentiality Policies:** Confinement Principle ,Detour Unix user IDs process IDs and privileges, More on confinement techniques ,System call interposition ,Error 404 digital Hacking in India part 2 chase , VM based isolation ,Confinement principle ,Software fault isolation , Rootkits, Intrusion Detection Systems

#### Unit III

**Secure architecture principles isolation and leas:** Access Control Concepts , Unix and windows access control summary ,Other issues in access control ,Introduction to browser isolation .

**Web security landscape :** Web security definitions goals and threat models , HTTP content rendering .Browser isolation .Security interface , Cookies frames and frame busting, Major webserver threats ,Cross site request forgery ,Cross site scripting ,Defenses and protections against XSS, Finding vulnerabilities ,Secure development.

#### Unit IV

**Basic cryptography:** Public key cryptography ,RSA public key crypto ,Digital signature Hash functions ,Public key distribution ,Real world protocols ,Basic terminologies ,Email security certificates ,Transport Layer security TLS ,IP security , DNS security.

#### Unit V

**Internet Infrastructure:** Basic security problems , Routing security ,DNS revisited ,Summary of weaknesses of internet security, .Link layer connectivity and TCP IP connectivity , Packet filtering firewall ,Intrusion detection.

## Semester 4

## APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS

#### UNIT I

Introduction to solid, liquid and gaseous fuels– Stoichiometry, exhaust gas analysis- First lawanalysis of combustion reactions- Heat calculations using enthalpy tables- Adiabatic flametemperatureChemical equilibrium and equilibrium composition calculations using freeenergy. Introduction and Otto, Diesel and Dual cycles.

#### Unit II

**Vapour Power cycles:**

Vapor power cycles Rankine cycle with superheat, reheat and regeneration, exergy analysis. Rankine cycle, effect of pressure and temperature on Rankine cycle, Reheat cycle, Regenerative cycle, Feed water heaters, Binary vapour cycle, Combined cycles, Cogeneration.**Fuels and Combustion:** Combustion analysis, heating values, air requirement, Air/Fuel ratio, standard heat of reaction and effect of temperature on standard heat of reaction, heat of formation, Adiabatic flame temperature.

#### Unit III

**Boilers:** Classifications and working of boilers, boiler mountings and accessories, Draught and its calculations, air pre-heater, feed water heater, super heater. Boiler efficiency, Equivalent evaporation. Boiler trial and heat balance.**Condenser:** Classification of condenser, air leakage, condenser performance parameters.

#### Unit IV

**Steam and Gas Nozzles:** Flow through Convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles, variation of velocity, area and specific volume, choked flow, throat area, Nozzle efficiency, Off design operation of nozzle, Shock waves stationary normal shock waves, Effect of friction on nozzle, Super saturated flow.**Steam Turbines:** Classification of steam turbine, Impulse and Reaction turbines, Staging, Stage and Overall efficiency, reheat factor, Bleeding, Velocity diagram of simple and compound multistage impulse and reaction turbines and related calculations, work done, efficiencies of reaction, Impulse reaction turbines, state point locus, Losses in steam turbines, Governing of turbines, Comparison with steam engine.

#### Unit V

**Gas Turbine:** Gas turbine classification, Brayton cycle, Principles of gas turbine, Gas turbine cycles with intercooling, reheat and regeneration and their combinations, Stage efficiency, Polytropic efficiency. Deviation of actual cycles from ideal cycles.

**Jet Propulsion:** Introduction to the principles of jet propulsion, Turbojet and turboprop engines andtheir processes, Principle of rocket propulsion, Introduction to Rocket Engine. Reciprocating compressors, staging of reciprocating compressors, optimal stage pressureratio, effect of intercooling, minimum work for multistage reciprocating compressors.

## ENGINEERING MECHANICS

#### UNIT I

**Two-dimensional force systems:** Basic concepts, Laws of motion, Principle of transmissibility of forces, transfer of a force to parallel position, resultant of a force system, simplest resultant of two dimensional concurrent and non-concurrent force systems, distribution of force systems, free body diagrams, equilibrium and equations of equilibrium.**Friction:** Friction force – Laws of sliding friction – equilibrium analysis of simple systems with sliding friction – wedge friction.

#### Unit II

**Beam:** Introduction, shear force and bending moment, different equations of equilibrium, shear force and bending moment diagram for statically determined beams.**Trusses:** Introduction, simple truss and solution of simple truss, methods of F-joint and methods of

sections.

#### Unit III

**Centroid and moment of inertia:** Centroid of plane, curve, area, volume and composite bodies, moment of inertia of plane area, parallel axis theorem, perpendicular axis theorem, principle moment of inertia, mass moment of inertia of circular ring, disc, cylinder, sphere, and cone about their axis of symmetry.

#### Unit IV

**Kinematics of rigid body:** Introduction, plane motion of rigid body, velocity and acceleration under translational and rotational motion, relative velocity.**Kinetics of rigid body:** Introduction, force, mass and acceleration, work and energy, impulse and momentum, D’Alembert’s principle and dynamic equilibrium.

#### Unit V

**Simple stress and strain:** Introduction, normal and shear stresses, stress-strain diagrams for ductile and brittle material, elastic constants, one-dimensional loading of members of varying cross sections, strain energy. Pure bending of beams: Introduction, simple bending theory, stress in beams of different cross sections.**Torsion:** Introduction, torsion of shafts of circular cross sections, torque and twist, shear stress due to torque.

## MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

#### UNIT I

**Conventional Manufacturing processes:**

Casting and moulding: Metal casting processes and equipment, Heat transfer and solidification, shrinkage, riser design, casting defects and residual stresses. Introduction to bulk and sheet metal forming, plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk forming (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet forming (shearing, deep drawing, bending) principles of powder metallurgy.

#### Unit II

**Metal cutting:** Single and multi-point cutting; Orthogonal cutting, various force components: Chip formation, Tool wear and tool life, Surface finish and integrity, Machinability, cutting tool materials, cutting fluids, Coating; Turning, Drilling, Milling and finishing processes, Introduction to CNC machining. Additive manufacturing: Rapid prototyping and rapid tooling Joining/fastening processes: Physics of welding, brazing and soldering; design considerations in welding, Solid and liquid state joining processes; Adhesive bonding.

#### Unit III

**Grinding & Super finishing: **Grinding: Grinding wheels, abrasive & bonds, cutting action. Grinding wheel specification. Grinding wheel wear – attritions wear, fracture wear. Dressing and Truing. Max chip thickness and Guest criteria. Surface and cylindrical grinding. Centreless grinding.

Super finishing: Honing, lapping and polishing.

#### Unit IV

Metal Joining (Welding): Survey of welding and allied processes. Gas welding and cutting, process and equipment. Arc welding: Power sources and consumables. TIG & MIG processes and their parameters. Resistance welding – spot, seam projection etc. Other welding processes such as atomic hydrogen, submerged arc, electroslag, friction welding. Soldering & Brazing. Adhesive bonding. Weld decay in HAZ.

#### Unit V

**Unconventional Machining Processes: **Abrasive Jet Machining, Water Jet Machining, Abrasive Water Jet Machining, UltrasonicMachining, principles and process parameters. Electrical Discharge Machining, principle and processes parameters, MRR, surface finish,tool wear, dielectric, power and control circuits, wire EDM; Electrochemical machining(ECM), etchant &maskant, process parameters, MRR and surface finish.Laser Beam Machining (LBM), Plasma Arc Machining (PAM) and Electron BeamMachining.

## Mathematics –IV

#### UNIT I

**Partial Differential Equations : **Origin of Partial Differential Equations, Linear and Non Linear Partial Equations of first order,

Lagrange’s Equations, Charpit’s method, Cauchy’s method of Characteristics, Solution of Linear Partial Differential Equation of Higher order with constant coefficients, Equations reducible to linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients.

#### Unit II

**Applications of Partial Differential Equations: **Classification of linear partial differential equation of second order, Method of separation of variables, Solution of wave and heat conduction equation up to two dimension, Laplace equation in two dimensions, Equations of Transmission lines.

#### Unit III

**Statistical Techniques I: **Introduction: Measures of central tendency, Moments, Moment generating function (MGF) ,

Skewness, Kurtosis, Curve Fitting , Method of least squares, Fitting of straight lines, Fitting of second degree parabola, Exponential curves ,Correlation and Rank correlation, Regression Analysis: Regression lines of y on x and x on y, regression coefficients, properties of regressions coefficients and non linear regression.

#### Unit IV

**Statistical Techniques II: Probability and Distribution:** Introduction, Addition and multiplication law of probability, Conditional probability, Baye’s theorem, Random variables (Discrete and Continuous Random variable) Probability mass function and Probability density function, Expectation and variance, Discrete and Continuous Probability distribution: Binomial, Poission and Normal distributions.

#### Unit V

**Statistical Techniques III:****Sampling, Testing of Hypothesis and Statistical Quality Control:** Introduction , Sampling Theory (Small and Large) , Hypothesis, Null hypothesis, Alternative hypothesis, Testing a Hypothesis, Level of significance, Confidence limits, Test of significance of difference of means, T-test, F-test and Chi-square test, One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).Statistical Quality Control (SQC) , Control Charts , Control Charts for variables ( X and R Charts), Control Charts for Variables ( p, np and C charts).

## PYTHON PROGRAMMING

#### UNIT I

**Introduction:** The Programming Cycle for Python , Python IDE, Interacting with Python Programs , Elements of Python, Type Conversion.**Basics:** Expressions, Assignment Statement, Arithmetic Operators, Operator Precedence, Boolean Expression.

#### Unit II

**Conditionals:** Conditional statement in Python (if-else statement, its working and execution), Nested-if statement and Elif statement in Python, Expression Evaluation & Float Representation.**Loops:** Purpose and working of loops , While loop including its working, For Loop , Nested Loops , Break and Continue.

#### Unit III

**Function:** Parts of A Function , Execution of A Function , Keyword and Default Arguments ,Scope Rules.**Strings :** Length of the string and perform Concatenation and Repeat operations in it. Indexing and

Slicing of Strings.**Python Data Structure :** Tuples , Unpacking Sequences , Lists , Mutable Sequences , List

Comprehension , Sets , Dictionaries

Higher Order Functions: Treat functions as first class Objects , Lambda Expressions

#### Unit IV

**Sieve of Eratosthenes:** generate prime numbers with the help of an algorithm given by the Greek Mathematician named Eratosthenes, whose algorithm is known as Sieve of Eratosthenes.

**File I/O :** File input and output operations in Python Programming

**Exceptions and Assertions****Modules :** Introduction , Importing Modules ,**Abstract Data Types :** Abstract data types and ADT interface in Python Programming.**Classes :** Class definition and other operations in the classes , Special Methods ( such as _init_, _str_, comparison methods and Arithmetic methods etc.) , Class Example , Inheritance , Inheritance and OOP.

#### Unit V

**Iterators & Recursion:** Recursive Fibonacci , Tower Of Hanoi**Search :** Simple Search and Estimating Search Time , Binary Search and Estimating Binary Search

Time**Sorting & Merging:** Selection Sort , Merge List , Merge Sort , Higher Order Sort

## Universal Human Values and Professional Ethics

#### UNIT I

**Course Introduction –** Need, Basic Guidelines, Content and Process for Value Education Understanding the need, basic guidelines, content and process for Value Education, Self-Exploration–what is it? – its content and process; ‘Natural Acceptance’ and Experiential Validation- as the mechanism for self exploration, Continuous Happiness and Prosperity- A look at basic Human Aspirations, Right understanding, Relationship and Physical Facilities- the basic requirements for fulfillment of aspirations of every human being with their correct priority, Understanding Happiness and Prosperity correctly- A critical appraisal of the current scenario, Method to fulfill the above human aspirations: understanding and living in harmony at various levels.

#### Unit II

**Understanding Harmony in the Human Being – **Harmony in Myself Understanding human being as a co-existence of the sentient ‘I’ and the material ‘Body’, Understanding the needs of Self (‘I’) and ‘Body’ – Sukh and Suvidha, Understanding the Body as an instrument of ‘I’ (I being the doer, seer and enjoyer), Understanding the characteristics and activities of ‘I’ and harmony in ‘I’, Understanding the harmony of I with the Body: Sanyam and Swasthya; correct appraisal of Physical needs, meaning of Prosperity in detail, Programs to ensure Sanyam and Swasthya.

#### Unit III

**Understanding Harmony in the Family and Society-** Harmony in Human-Human Relationship Understanding harmony in the Family- the basic unit of human interaction , Understanding values in human-human relationship; meaning of Nyaya and

program for its fulfillment to ensure Ubhay-tripti; Trust (Vishwas) and Respect (Samman) as the foundational values of relationship, Understanding the meaning of Vishwas; Difference between intention and competence, Understanding the meaning of Samman, Difference between respect and differentiation; the other salient values in relationship, Understanding the harmony in the society (society being an extension of family): Samadhan, Samridhi, Abhay, Sah-astitva as comprehensive Human Goals, Visualizing a universal harmonious order in societyUndivided Society (AkhandSamaj), Universal Order (SarvabhaumVyawastha )- from family to world family!.

#### Unit IV

**Understanding Harmony in the Nature and Existence –** Whole existence as Co-existence Understanding the harmony in the Nature, Interconnectedness and mutual fulfillment among the four orders of nature- recyclability and self-regulation in nature, Understanding Existence as Co-existence (Sah-astitva) of mutually interacting units in all-pervasive space, Holistic perception of harmony at all levels of existence.

#### Unit V

**Implications of the above Holistic Understanding of Harmony on Professional Ethics: **Natural acceptance of human values, Definitiveness of Ethical Human Conduct, Basis for Humanistic Education, Humanistic Constitution and Humanistic

Universal Order, Competence in Professional Ethics: a) Ability to utilize the professional competence for augmenting universal human order, b) Ability to identify the scope and characteristics of people-friendly and eco-friendly production systems, technologies and management models, Case studies of typical holistic technologies, management models and production systems, Strategy for transition from the present state to Universal Human Order: a) At the level of individual: as socially and ecologically responsible engineers, technologists and managers, b) At the level of society: as mutually enriching institutions and

organizations.

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