AKTU B.Tech 2nd Year Syllabus for EC (Electrical and Electronics Engineering). There are six subjects in semester 3 and six subjects in semester 4 means there are twelve subjects in 2nd year for Electrical and Electronics Engineering. In this page you will find all the information about the your syllabus in detail.

## Semester 3

## Electronics Devices

#### UNIT I

**Introduction to semiconductor physics:** Review of quantum mechanics, electrons in periodic lattices, E-k diagrams.

#### Unit II

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon, carrier transport, diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, sheet resistance, design of resistors.

#### Unit III

Generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equation, P-N junction characteristics, I-V characteristics, and small signal switching models.

#### Unit IV

Avalanche breakdown, Zener diode, Schottky diode, Bipolar Junction Transistor, I-V characteristics, Ebers-Moll model.

#### Unit V

MOS capacitor, C-V characteristics, MOSFET, I-V characteristics, and small signal models of MOS transistor, LED, photodiode and solar cell.

## Digital System Design

#### UNIT I

**Logic simplification and combinational logic design:** Binary codes, code conversion, review of Boolean algebra and Demorgans theorem, SOP & POS forms, Canonical forms, Karnaugh maps up to 6 variables, tabulation method.

#### Unit II

MSI devices like comparators, multiplexers, encoder, decoder, driver & multiplexed display, half and full adders, subtractors, serial and parallel adders, BCD adder, barrel shifter and ALU.

#### Unit III

Sequential logic design: Building blocks like S-R, JK and Master-Slave JK FF, edge triggered FF, state diagram, state reduction, design of sequential circuits, ripple and synchronous counters, shift registers, finite state machines, design of synchronous FSM, algorithmic state machines charts. Designing synchronous circuits like pulse train generator, pseudo random binary sequence generator, clock generation.

#### Unit IV

**Logic families and semiconductor memories:** TTL NAND gate, specifications, noise margin, propagation delay, fan-in, fan-out, tristate TTL, ECL, CMOS families and their interfacing, memory elements, concept of programmable logic devices like FPGA, logic implementation using programmable devices.

#### Unit V

**Digital-to-Analog converters (DAC):** Weighted resistor, R-2R ladder, resistor string etc. analog-to-digital converters (ADC): single slope, dual slope, successive approximation, flash etc. switched capacitor circuits: Basic concept, practical configurations, application in amplifier, integrator, ADC etc.

## NETWORK ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS

#### UNIT I

Node and mesh analysis, matrix approach of network containing voltage & current sources and reactances, source transformation and duality.

#### Unit II

Network theorems: Superposition, reciprocity, Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Maximum power transfer, compensation and Tallegen’s theorem as applied to A.C. circuits.

#### Unit III

Trigonometric and exponential Fourier series: Discrete spectra and symmetry of waveform, steady state response of a network to nonsinusoidal periodic inputs, power factor, effective values, Fourier transform and continuous spectra, three phase unbalanced circuit and power calculation.

#### Unit IV

Laplace transforms and properties: Partial fractions, singularity functions, waveform synthesis, analysis of RC, RL, and RLC networks with and without initial conditions with Laplace transforms evaluation of initial conditions.

#### Unit V

Transient behaviour, concept of complex frequency, driving points and transfer functions poles and zeros of immittance function, their properties, sinusoidal response from pole-zero locations, convolution theorem and two four port network and interconnections, behaviour of series and parallel resonant circuits, introduction to band pass, low pass, high pass and band reject filters.

## Technical Communication

#### UNIT I

**Fundamentals of Technical Communication:** Technical Communication: Features; Distinction between General and Technical Communication; Language as a tool of Communication; Dimensions of Communication: Reading & comprehension; Technical writing: sentences; Paragraph; Technical style: Definition, types & Methods; The flow of Communication: Downward; upward, Lateral or Horizontal; Barriers to Communication.

#### Unit II

**Forms of Technical Communication:** Technical Report: Definition & importance; Thesis/Project writing: structure & importance; synopsis writing: Methods; Technical research Paper writing: Methods & style; Seminar & Conference paper writing; Expert Technical Lecture: Theme clarity; Analysis & Findings; 7 Cs of effective business writing: concreteness, completeness, clarity, conciseness, courtesy, correctness, consideration, C.V./Resume writing; Technical Proposal: Types, Structure & Draft.

#### Unit III

**Technical Presentation:** Strategies & Techniques Presentation: Forms; interpersonal Communication; Class room presentation; style; method; Individual conferencing: essentials: Public Speaking: method; Techniques: Clarity of substance; emotion; Humour; Modes of Presentation; Overcoming Stage Fear; Audience Analysis & retention of audience interest; Methods of Presentation: Interpersonal; Impersonal; Audience Participation: Quizzes & Interjections.

#### Unit IV

**Technical Communication Skills:** Interview skills; Group Discussion: Objective & Method; Seminar/Conferences Presentation skills: Focus; Content; Style; Argumentation skills: Devices: Analysis; Cohesion & Emphasis; Critical thinking; Nuances: Exposition narration & Description; effective business communication competence: Grammatical; Discourse competence: combination of expression & conclusion; Socio-linguistic competence: Strategic competence: Solution of communication problems with verbal and non verbal means.

#### Unit V

**Dimensions of Oral Communication & Voice Dynamics:** Code and Content; Stimulus & Response; Encoding process; Decoding process; Pronunciation Etiquette; Syllables; Vowel sounds; Consonant sounds; Tone: Rising tone; Falling Tone; Flow in Speaking; Speaking with a purpose; Speech & personality; Professional Personality Attributes: Empathy; Considerateness; Leadership; Competence.

## Mathematics –IV

#### UNIT I

**Partial Differential Equations : **Origin of Partial Differential Equations, Linear and Non Linear Partial Equations of first order,

Lagrange’s Equations, Charpit’s method, Cauchy’s method of Characteristics, Solution of Linear Partial Differential Equation of Higher order with constant coefficients, Equations reducible to linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients.

#### Unit II

**Applications of Partial Differential Equations: **Classification of linear partial differential equation of second order, Method of separation of variables, Solution of wave and heat conduction equation up to two dimension, Laplace equation in two dimensions, Equations of Transmission lines.

#### Unit III

**Statistical Techniques I: **Introduction: Measures of central tendency, Moments, Moment generating function (MGF) ,

Skewness, Kurtosis, Curve Fitting , Method of least squares, Fitting of straight lines, Fitting of second degree parabola, Exponential curves ,Correlation and Rank correlation, Regression Analysis: Regression lines of y on x and x on y, regression coefficients, properties of regressions coefficients and non linear regression.

#### Unit IV

**Statistical Techniques II: Probability and Distribution:** Introduction, Addition and multiplication law of probability, Conditional probability, Baye’s theorem, Random variables (Discrete and Continuous Random variable) Probability mass function and Probability density function, Expectation and variance, Discrete and Continuous Probability distribution: Binomial, Poission and Normal distributions.

#### Unit V

**Statistical Techniques III:****Sampling, Testing of Hypothesis and Statistical Quality Control:** Introduction , Sampling Theory (Small and Large) , Hypothesis, Null hypothesis, Alternative hypothesis, Testing a Hypothesis, Level of significance, Confidence limits, Test of significance of difference of means, T-test, F-test and Chi-square test, One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).Statistical Quality Control (SQC) , Control Charts , Control Charts for variables ( X and R Charts), Control Charts for Variables ( p, np and C charts).

## PYTHON PROGRAMMING

#### UNIT I

**Introduction:** The Programming Cycle for Python , Python IDE, Interacting with Python Programs , Elements of Python, Type Conversion.**Basics:** Expressions, Assignment Statement, Arithmetic Operators, Operator Precedence, Boolean Expression.

#### Unit II

**Conditionals:** Conditional statement in Python (if-else statement, its working and execution), Nested-if statement and Elif statement in Python, Expression Evaluation & Float Representation.**Loops:** Purpose and working of loops , While loop including its working, For Loop , Nested Loops , Break and Continue.

#### Unit III

**Function:** Parts of A Function , Execution of A Function , Keyword and Default Arguments ,Scope Rules.**Strings :** Length of the string and perform Concatenation and Repeat operations in it. Indexing and

Slicing of Strings.**Python Data Structure :** Tuples , Unpacking Sequences , Lists , Mutable Sequences , List

Comprehension , Sets , Dictionaries

Higher Order Functions: Treat functions as first class Objects , Lambda Expressions

#### Unit IV

**Sieve of Eratosthenes:** generate prime numbers with the help of an algorithm given by the Greek Mathematician named Eratosthenes, whose algorithm is known as Sieve of Eratosthenes.

**File I/O :** File input and output operations in Python Programming

**Exceptions and Assertions****Modules :** Introduction , Importing Modules ,**Abstract Data Types :** Abstract data types and ADT interface in Python Programming.**Classes :** Class definition and other operations in the classes , Special Methods ( such as _init_, _str_, comparison methods and Arithmetic methods etc.) , Class Example , Inheritance , Inheritance and OOP.

#### Unit V

**Iterators & Recursion:** Recursive Fibonacci , Tower Of Hanoi**Search :** Simple Search and Estimating Search Time , Binary Search and Estimating Binary Search

Time**Sorting & Merging:** Selection Sort , Merge List , Merge Sort , Higher Order Sort

## Semester 4

## Communication Engineering

#### UNIT I

Review of signals and systems, frequency domain representation of signals, principles of amplitude modulation systems- DSB, SSB and VSB modulations.

#### Unit II

Angle modulation, representation of FM and PM signals, spectral characteristics of angle modulated signals.

#### Unit III

Review of probability and random process, Gaussian and white noise characteristics, noise in amplitude modulation systems, noise in frequency modulation systems, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, threshold effect in angle modulation.

#### Unit IV

Pulse modulation, sampling process, pulse amplitude and pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation. Delta modulation, noise considerations in PCM, time division multiplexing, digital multiplexers.

#### Unit V

Digital modulation schemes- phase shift keying, frequency shift keying, quadrature amplitude modulation, continuous phase modulation and minimum shift keying.

## Analog Circuits

#### UNIT I

Diode circuits, amplifier models: Voltage amplifier, current amplifier, trans-conductance amplifier and trans-resistance amplifier. biasing schemes for BJT and FET amplifiers, bias stability, various configurations (such as CE/CS, CB/CG, CC/CD) and their features, small signal analysis, low frequency transistor models, estimation of voltage gain, input resistance, output resistance etc., design procedure for particular specifications, low frequency analysis of multistage amplifiers.

#### Unit II

High frequency transistor models, frequency response of single stage and multistage amplifiers, cascode amplifier, various classes of operation (Class A, B, AB, C etc.), their power efficiency and linearity issues, feedback topologies: Voltage series, current series, voltage shunt, current shunt, effect of feedback on gain, bandwidth etc., calculation with practical circuits, concept of stability, gain margin and phase margin.

#### Unit III

Oscillators: Review of the basic concept, Barkhausen criterion, RC oscillators (phase shift, Wien bridge etc.), LC oscillators (Hartley, Colpitt, Clapp etc.), non-sinusoidal oscillators.

#### Unit IV

Current mirror: Basic topology and its variants, V-I characteristics, output resistance and minimum sustainable voltage (VON), maximum usable load, differential amplifier: Basic structure and principle of operation, calculation of differential gain, common mode gain, CMRR and ICMR, Op-Amp design: Design of differential amplifier for a given specification, design of gain stages and output stages, compensation.

#### Unit V

Op-Amp applications: Review of inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, integrator and differentiator, summing amplifier, precision rectifier, Schmitt trigger and its applications, active filters: Low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop, design guidelines.

## Signal System

#### UNIT I

Signals and systems as seen in everyday life, and in various branches of engineering and science, energy and power signals, continuous and discrete time signals, continuous and discrete amplitude signals, system properties: linearity, additivity and homogeneity, shift-invariance, causality, stability, realizability.

#### Unit II

Linear shift-invariant (LSI) systems, impulse response and step response, convolution, input-output behaviour with aperiodic convergent inputs, characterization of causality and stability of linear shift invariant systems, system representation through differential equations and difference equations, Periodic and semi-periodic inputs to an LSI system, the notion of a frequency response and its relation to the impulse response

#### Unit III

Fourier series representation, Fourier transform, convolution/multiplication and their effect in the frequency domain, magnitude and phase response, Fourier domain duality , Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) and the Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), Parseval’s Theorem, the idea of signal space and orthogonal bases, the Laplace transform, notion of Eigen functions of LSI systems, a basis of Eigen functions, region of convergence, poles and zeros of system, Laplace domain analysis, solution to differential equations and system behaviour.

#### Unit IV

The z-Transform for discrete time signals and systems-Eigen functions, region of convergence, z-domain analysis.

#### Unit V

The sampling theorem and its implications- spectra of sampled signals, reconstruction: ideal interpolator, zero-order hold, first-order hold, and so on, aliasing and its effects, relation between continuous and discrete time systems.

## COMPUTER SYSTEM SECURITY

#### UNIT I

**Computer System Security Introduction:** Introduction, What is computer security and what to l earn? , Sample Attacks, The Marketplace for vulnerabilities, Error 404 Hacking digital India part 1 chase.**Hijacking & Defense:** Control Hijacking ,More Control Hijacking attacks integer overflow ,More Control Hijacking attacks format string vulnerabilities, Defense against Control Hijacking – Platform Defenses, Defense against Control Hijacking – Run-time Defenses, Advanced Control Hijacking attacks.

#### Unit II

**Confidentiality Policies:** Confinement Principle ,Detour Unix user IDs process IDs and privileges, More on confinement techniques ,System call interposition ,Error 404 digital Hacking in India part 2 chase , VM based isolation ,Confinement principle ,Software fault isolation , Rootkits, Intrusion Detection Systems

#### Unit III

**Secure architecture principles isolation and leas:** Access Control Concepts , Unix and windows access control summary ,Other issues in access control ,Introduction to browser isolation .

**Web security landscape :** Web security definitions goals and threat models , HTTP content rendering .Browser isolation .Security interface , Cookies frames and frame busting, Major webserver threats ,Cross site request forgery ,Cross site scripting ,Defenses and protections against XSS, Finding vulnerabilities ,Secure development.

#### Unit IV

**Basic cryptography:** Public key cryptography ,RSA public key crypto ,Digital signature Hash functions ,Public key distribution ,Real world protocols ,Basic terminologies ,Email security certificates ,Transport Layer security TLS ,IP security , DNS security.

#### Unit V

**Internet Infrastructure:** Basic security problems , Routing security ,DNS revisited ,Summary of weaknesses of internet security, .Link layer connectivity and TCP IP connectivity , Packet filtering firewall ,Intrusion detection.

## Universal Human Values and Professional Ethics

#### UNIT I

**Course Introduction –** Need, Basic Guidelines, Content and Process for Value Education Understanding the need, basic guidelines, content and process for Value Education, Self-Exploration–what is it? – its content and process; ‘Natural Acceptance’ and Experiential Validation- as the mechanism for self exploration, Continuous Happiness and Prosperity- A look at basic Human Aspirations, Right understanding, Relationship and Physical Facilities- the basic requirements for fulfillment of aspirations of every human being with their correct priority, Understanding Happiness and Prosperity correctly- A critical appraisal of the current scenario, Method to fulfill the above human aspirations: understanding and living in harmony at various levels.

#### Unit II

**Understanding Harmony in the Human Being – **Harmony in Myself Understanding human being as a co-existence of the sentient ‘I’ and the material ‘Body’, Understanding the needs of Self (‘I’) and ‘Body’ – Sukh and Suvidha, Understanding the Body as an instrument of ‘I’ (I being the doer, seer and enjoyer), Understanding the characteristics and activities of ‘I’ and harmony in ‘I’, Understanding the harmony of I with the Body: Sanyam and Swasthya; correct appraisal of Physical needs, meaning of Prosperity in detail, Programs to ensure Sanyam and Swasthya.

#### Unit III

**Understanding Harmony in the Family and Society-** Harmony in Human-Human Relationship Understanding harmony in the Family- the basic unit of human interaction , Understanding values in human-human relationship; meaning of Nyaya and

program for its fulfillment to ensure Ubhay-tripti; Trust (Vishwas) and Respect (Samman) as the foundational values of relationship, Understanding the meaning of Vishwas; Difference between intention and competence, Understanding the meaning of Samman, Difference between respect and differentiation; the other salient values in relationship, Understanding the harmony in the society (society being an extension of family): Samadhan, Samridhi, Abhay, Sah-astitva as comprehensive Human Goals, Visualizing a universal harmonious order in societyUndivided Society (AkhandSamaj), Universal Order (SarvabhaumVyawastha )- from family to world family!.

#### Unit IV

**Understanding Harmony in the Nature and Existence –** Whole existence as Co-existence Understanding the harmony in the Nature, Interconnectedness and mutual fulfillment among the four orders of nature- recyclability and self-regulation in nature, Understanding Existence as Co-existence (Sah-astitva) of mutually interacting units in all-pervasive space, Holistic perception of harmony at all levels of existence.

#### Unit V

**Implications of the above Holistic Understanding of Harmony on Professional Ethics: **Natural acceptance of human values, Definitiveness of Ethical Human Conduct, Basis for Humanistic Education, Humanistic Constitution and Humanistic

Universal Order, Competence in Professional Ethics: a) Ability to utilize the professional competence for augmenting universal human order, b) Ability to identify the scope and characteristics of people-friendly and eco-friendly production systems, technologies and management models, Case studies of typical holistic technologies, management models and production systems, Strategy for transition from the present state to Universal Human Order: a) At the level of individual: as socially and ecologically responsible engineers, technologists and managers, b) At the level of society: as mutually enriching institutions and

organizations.

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