AKTU B.Tech 2nd Year CS Syllabus for (Computer Science Engineering). There are six subjects in semester 3 and six subjects in semester 4 means there are twelve subjects in 2nd year for Computer Science Engineering. In this page you will find all the information about the your syllabus in detail.

## Semester 3

## DATA STRUCTURE

#### UNIT I

**Introduction:** Basic Terminology, Elementary Data Organization, Built in Data Types in C. Algorithm, Efficiency of an Algorithm, Time and Space Complexity, Asymptotic notations: Big Oh, Big Theta and Big Omega, Time-Space trade-off. Abstract Data Types (ADT)**Arrays:** Definition, Single and Multidimensional Arrays, Representation of Arrays: Row Major Order, and Column Major Order, Derivation of Index Formulae for 1-D,2-D,3-D and n-D Array Application of arrays, Sparse Matrices and their representations.**Linked lists:** Array Implementation and Pointer Implementation of Singly Linked Lists, Doubly Linked List, Circularly Linked List, Operations on a Linked List. Insertion, Deletion, Traversal, Polynomial Representation and Addition Subtraction & Multiplications of Single variable & Two variables Polynomial.

#### Unit II

**Stacks:** Abstract Data Type, Primitive Stack operations: Push & Pop, Array and Linked Implementation of Stack in C, Application of stack: Prefix and Postfix Expressions, Evaluation of postfix expression, Iteration and Recursion- Principles of recursion, Tail recursion, Removal of recursion Problem solving using iteration and recursion with examples such as binary search, Fibonacci numbers, and Hanoi towers. Tradeoffs between iteration and recursion.

**Queues:** Operations on Queue: Create, Add, Delete, Full and Empty, Circular queues, Array and linked implementation of queues in C, Dequeue and Priority Queue.

#### Unit III

**Searching:** Concept of Searching, Sequential search, Index Sequential Search, Binary Search. Concept of Hashing & Collision resolution Techniques used in Hashing. Sorting: Insertion Sort, Selection, Bubble Sort, Quick Sort, Merge Sort, Heap Sort and Radix Sort.

#### Unit IV

**Graphs:** Terminology used with Graph, Data Structure for Graph Representations: Adjacency Matrices, Adjacency List, Adjacency. Graph Traversal: Depth First Search and Breadth First Search, Connected Component, Spanning Trees, Minimum Cost Spanning Trees: Prims and Kruskal algorithm. Transitive Closure and Shortest Path algorithm: Warshal Algorithm and

Dijikstra Algorithm.

#### Unit V

**Trees:** Basic terminology used with Tree, Binary Trees, Binary Tree Representation: Array Representation and Pointer(Linked List) Representation, Binary Search Tree, Strictly Binary Tree, Complete Binary Tree . A Extended Binary Trees, Tree Traversal algorithms: Inorder, Preorder and Postorder, Constructing Binary Tree from given Tree Traversal, Operation of Insertation ,

Deletion, Searching & Modification of data in Binary Search . Threaded Binary trees, Traversing Threaded Binary trees. Huffman coding using Binary Tree. Concept & Basic Operations for AVL Tree , B Tree & Binary Heaps.

## Computer Organization and Architecture

#### UNIT I

**Introduction:** Functional units of digital system and their interconnections, buses, bus architecture, types of buses and bus arbitration. Register, bus and memory transfer. Processor organization, general registers organization, stack organization and addressing modes.

#### Unit II

**Arithmetic and logic unit:** Look ahead carries adders. Multiplication: Signed operand multiplication, Booths algorithm and array multiplier. Division and logic operations. Floating point arithmetic operation, Arithmetic & logic unit design. IEEE Standard for Floating Point Numbers

#### Unit III

**Control Unit:** Instruction types, formats, instruction cycles and sub cycles (fetch and execute etc), micro operations, execution of a complete instruction. Program Control, Reduced Instruction Set Computer, Pipelining. Hardwire and micro programmed control: micro programme sequencing, concept of horizontal and vertical microprogramming.

#### Unit IV

**Memory:** Basic concept and hierarchy, semiconductor RAM memories, 2D & 2 1/2D memory organization. ROM memories. Cache memories: concept and design issues & performance, address mapping and replacement Auxiliary memories: magnetic disk, magnetic tape and optical disks Virtual memory: concept implementation.

#### Unit V

**Input / Output:** Peripheral devices, I/O interface, I/O ports, Interrupts: interrupt hardware, types of interrupts and exceptions. Modes of Data Transfer: Programmed I/O, interrupt initiated I/O and Direct Memory Access., I/O channels and processors. Serial Communication: Synchronous & asynchronous communication, standard communication interfaces.

## Discrete Structures & Theory of Logic

#### UNIT I

**Set Theory:** Introduction, Combination of sets, Multisets, Ordered pairs. Proofs of some general identities on sets.

Relations: Definition, Operations on relations, Properties of relations, Composite Relations, Equality of relations, Recursive definition of relation, Order of relations.

**Functions:** Definition, Classification of functions, Operations on functions, Recursively defined functions. Growth of Functions.

**Natural Numbers:** Introduction, Mathematical Induction, Variants of Induction, Induction with

Nonzero Base cases. Proof Methods, Proof by counter – example, Proof by contradiction.

#### Unit II

**Algebraic Structures:** Definition, Groups, Subgroups and order, Cyclic Groups, Cosets, Lagrange’s theorem, Normal Subgroups, Permutation and Symmetric groups, Group Homomorphisms, Definition and elementary properties of Rings and Fields.

#### Unit III

**Lattices:** Definition, Properties of lattices – Bounded, Complemented, Modular and Complete lattice. Boolean Algebra: Introduction, Axioms and Theorems of Boolean algebra, Algebraic manipulation of Boolean expressions. Simplification of Boolean Functions, Karnaugh maps, Logic gates, Digital circuits and Boolean algebra.

#### Unit IV

**Propositional Logic:** Proposition, well formed formula, Truth tables, Tautology, Satisfiability, Contradiction, Algebra of proposition, Theory of Inference. (8)**Predicate Logic:** First order predicate, well formed formula of predicate, quantifiers, Inference theory of predicate logic.

#### Unit V

**Trees:** Definition, Binary tree, Binary tree traversal, Binary search tree.

**Graphs:** Definition and terminology, Representation of graphs, Multigraphs, Bipartite graphs, Planar graphs, Isomorphism and Homeomorphism of graphs, Euler and Hamiltonian paths, Graph coloring, Recurrence Relation & Generating function: Recursive definition of functions, Recursive algorithms, Method of solving recurrences.

**Combinatorics:** Introduction, Counting Techniques, Pigeonhole Principle.

## Technical Communication

#### UNIT I

**Fundamentals of Technical Communication:** Technical Communication: Features; Distinction between General and Technical Communication; Language as a tool of Communication; Dimensions of Communication: Reading & comprehension; Technical writing: sentences; Paragraph; Technical style: Definition, types & Methods; The flow of Communication: Downward; upward, Lateral or Horizontal; Barriers to Communication.

#### Unit II

**Forms of Technical Communication:** Technical Report: Definition & importance; Thesis/Project writing: structure & importance; synopsis writing: Methods; Technical research Paper writing: Methods & style; Seminar & Conference paper writing; Expert Technical Lecture: Theme clarity; Analysis & Findings; 7 Cs of effective business writing: concreteness, completeness, clarity, conciseness, courtesy, correctness, consideration, C.V./Resume writing; Technical Proposal: Types, Structure & Draft.

#### Unit III

**Technical Presentation:** Strategies & Techniques Presentation: Forms; interpersonal Communication; Class room presentation; style; method; Individual conferencing: essentials: Public Speaking: method; Techniques: Clarity of substance; emotion; Humour; Modes of Presentation; Overcoming Stage Fear; Audience Analysis & retention of audience interest; Methods of Presentation: Interpersonal; Impersonal; Audience Participation: Quizzes & Interjections.

#### Unit IV

**Technical Communication Skills:** Interview skills; Group Discussion: Objective & Method; Seminar/Conferences Presentation skills: Focus; Content; Style; Argumentation skills: Devices: Analysis; Cohesion & Emphasis; Critical thinking; Nuances: Exposition narration & Description; effective business communication competence: Grammatical; Discourse competence: combination of expression & conclusion; Socio-linguistic competence: Strategic competence: Solution of communication problems with verbal and non verbal means.

#### Unit V

**Dimensions of Oral Communication & Voice Dynamics:** Code and Content; Stimulus & Response; Encoding process; Decoding process; Pronunciation Etiquette; Syllables; Vowel sounds; Consonant sounds; Tone: Rising tone; Falling Tone; Flow in Speaking; Speaking with a purpose; Speech & personality; Professional Personality Attributes: Empathy; Considerateness; Leadership; Competence.

## Mathematics –IV

#### UNIT I

**Partial Differential Equations : **Origin of Partial Differential Equations, Linear and Non Linear Partial Equations of first order,

Lagrange’s Equations, Charpit’s method, Cauchy’s method of Characteristics, Solution of Linear Partial Differential Equation of Higher order with constant coefficients, Equations reducible to linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients.

#### Unit II

**Applications of Partial Differential Equations: **Classification of linear partial differential equation of second order, Method of separation of variables, Solution of wave and heat conduction equation up to two dimension, Laplace equation in two dimensions, Equations of Transmission lines.

#### Unit III

**Statistical Techniques I: **Introduction: Measures of central tendency, Moments, Moment generating function (MGF) ,

Skewness, Kurtosis, Curve Fitting , Method of least squares, Fitting of straight lines, Fitting of second degree parabola, Exponential curves ,Correlation and Rank correlation, Regression Analysis: Regression lines of y on x and x on y, regression coefficients, properties of regressions coefficients and non linear regression.

#### Unit IV

**Statistical Techniques II: Probability and Distribution:** Introduction, Addition and multiplication law of probability, Conditional probability, Baye’s theorem, Random variables (Discrete and Continuous Random variable) Probability mass function and Probability density function, Expectation and variance, Discrete and Continuous Probability distribution: Binomial, Poission and Normal distributions.

#### Unit V

**Statistical Techniques III:****Sampling, Testing of Hypothesis and Statistical Quality Control:** Introduction , Sampling Theory (Small and Large) , Hypothesis, Null hypothesis, Alternative hypothesis, Testing a Hypothesis, Level of significance, Confidence limits, Test of significance of difference of means, T-test, F-test and Chi-square test, One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).Statistical Quality Control (SQC) , Control Charts , Control Charts for variables ( X and R Charts), Control Charts for Variables ( p, np and C charts).

## PYTHON PROGRAMMING

#### UNIT I

**Introduction:** The Programming Cycle for Python , Python IDE, Interacting with Python Programs , Elements of Python, Type Conversion.**Basics:** Expressions, Assignment Statement, Arithmetic Operators, Operator Precedence, Boolean Expression.

#### Unit II

**Conditionals:** Conditional statement in Python (if-else statement, its working and execution), Nested-if statement and Elif statement in Python, Expression Evaluation & Float Representation.**Loops:** Purpose and working of loops , While loop including its working, For Loop , Nested Loops , Break and Continue.

#### Unit III

**Function:** Parts of A Function , Execution of A Function , Keyword and Default Arguments ,Scope Rules.**Strings :** Length of the string and perform Concatenation and Repeat operations in it. Indexing and

Slicing of Strings.**Python Data Structure :** Tuples , Unpacking Sequences , Lists , Mutable Sequences , List

Comprehension , Sets , Dictionaries

Higher Order Functions: Treat functions as first class Objects , Lambda Expressions

#### Unit IV

**Sieve of Eratosthenes:** generate prime numbers with the help of an algorithm given by the Greek Mathematician named Eratosthenes, whose algorithm is known as Sieve of Eratosthenes.

**File I/O :** File input and output operations in Python Programming

**Exceptions and Assertions****Modules :** Introduction , Importing Modules ,**Abstract Data Types :** Abstract data types and ADT interface in Python Programming.**Classes :** Class definition and other operations in the classes , Special Methods ( such as _init_, _str_, comparison methods and Arithmetic methods etc.) , Class Example , Inheritance , Inheritance and OOP.

#### Unit V

**Iterators & Recursion:** Recursive Fibonacci , Tower Of Hanoi**Search :** Simple Search and Estimating Search Time , Binary Search and Estimating Binary Search

Time**Sorting & Merging:** Selection Sort , Merge List , Merge Sort , Higher Order Sort

## Semester 4

## Operating systems

#### UNIT I

**Introduction :** Operating system and functions, Classification of Operating systems- Batch, Interactive, Time sharing, Real Time System, Multiprocessor Systems, Multiuser Systems, Multiprocess Systems, Multithreaded Systems, Operating System Structure- Layered structure, System Components, Operating System services, Reentrant Kernels, Monolithic and Microkernel

Systems.

#### Unit II

**Concurrent Processes:** Process Concept, Principle of Concurrency, Producer / Consumer Problem, Mutual Exclusion, Critical Section Problem, Dekker’s solution, Peterson’s solution, Semaphores, Test and Set operation; Classical Problem in Concurrency- Dining Philosopher Problem, Sleeping Barber Problem; Inter Process Communication models and Schemes, Process generation.

#### Unit III

**CPU Scheduling:** Scheduling Concepts, Performance Criteria, Process States, Process Transition Diagram, Schedulers, Process Control Block (PCB), Process address space, Process identification information, Threads and their management, Scheduling Algorithms, Multiprocessor Scheduling. Deadlock: System model, Deadlock characterization, Prevention, Avoidance and detection, Recovery from deadlock.

#### Unit IV

Memory Management: Basic bare machine, Resident monitor, Multiprogramming with fixed partitions, Multiprogramming with variable partitions, Protection schemes, Paging, Segmentation, Paged segmentation, Virtual memory concepts, Demand paging, Performance of demand paging, Page replacement algorithms, Thrashing, Cache memory organization, Locality of reference.

#### Unit V

**I/O Management and Disk Scheduling:** I/O devices, and I/O subsystems, I/O buffering, Disk storage and disk scheduling, RAID. File System: File concept, File organization and access mechanism, File directories, and File sharing, File system implementation issues, File system protection and security.

## Theory of Automata and Formal Languages

#### UNIT I

**Basic Concepts and Automata Theory:** Introduction to Theory of Computation- Automata, Computability and Complexity, Alphabet, Symbol, String, Formal Languages, Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA)- Definition, Representation, Acceptability of a String and Language, Non Deterministic Finite Automaton (NFA), Equivalence of DFA and NFA, NFA with ε-Transition,

Equivalence of NFA’s with and without ε-Transition, Finite Automata with output- Moore Machine, Mealy Machine, Equivalence of Moore and Mealy Machine, Minimization of Finite Automata, Myhill-Nerode Theorem, Simulation of DFA and NFA

#### Unit II

**Regular Expressions and Languages:** Regular Expressions, Transition Graph, Kleen’s Theorem, Finite Automata and Regular Expression- Arden’s theorem, Algebraic Method Using Arden’s Theorem, Regular and Non-Regular Languages- Closure properties of Regular Languages, Pigeonhole Principle, Pumping Lemma, Application of Pumping Lemma, Decidability- Decision properties, Finite Automata and Regular Languages, Regular Languages and Computers, Simulation of Transition Graph and Regular language.

#### Unit III

Regular and Non-Regular Grammars: Context Free Grammar(CFG)-Definition, Derivations, Languages, Derivation Trees and Ambiguity, Regular Grammars-Right Linear and Left Linear grammars, Conversion of FA into CFG and Regular grammar into FA, Simplification of CFG, Normal Forms- Chomsky Normal Form(CNF), Greibach Normal Form (GNF), Chomsky Hierarchy, Programming problems based on the properties of CFGs.

#### Unit IV

**Push Down Automata and Properties of Context Free Languages:** Nondeterministic Pushdown Automata (NPDA)- Definition, Moves, A Language Accepted by NPDA, Deterministic Pushdown Automata(DPDA) and Deterministic Context free Languages(DCFL), Pushdown Automata for Context Free Languages, Context Free grammars for Pushdown Automata, Two stack Pushdown Automata, Pumping Lemma for CFL, Closure properties of CFL, Decision Problems of CFL, Programming problems based on the properties of CFLs.

#### Unit V

**Turing Machines and Recursive Function Theory :** Basic Turing Machine Model, Representation of Turing Machines, Language Acceptability of Turing Machines, Techniques for Turing Machine Construction, Modifications of Turing Machine, Turing Machine as Computer of Integer Functions, Universal Turing machine, Linear Bounded Automata, Church’s Thesis, Recursive and Recursively Enumerable language, Halting Problem, Post’s Correspondance Problem, Introduction to Recursive Function Theory.

## Microprocessor

#### UNIT I

Microprocessor evolution and types, microprocessor architecture and operation of its components, addressing modes, interrupts, data transfer schemes, instruction and data flow, timer and timing diagram, Interfacing devices.

#### Unit II

Pin diagram and internal architecture of 8085 microprocessor, registers, ALU, Control & status, interrupt and machine cycle. Instruction sets. Addressing modes. Instruction formats Instruction Classification: data transfer, arithmetic operations, logical operations, branching operations, machine control and assembler directives.

#### Unit III

Architecture of 8086 microprocessor: register organization, bus interface unit, execution unit, memory addressing, and memory segmentation. Operating modes. Instruction sets, instruction format, Types of instructions. Interrupts: hardware and software interrupts.

#### Unit IV

Assembly language programming based on intel 8085/8086. Instructions, data transfer, arithmetic, logic, branch operations, looping, counting, indexing, programming techniques, counters and time delays, stacks and subroutines, conditional call and return instructions.

#### Unit V

Peripheral Devices: 8237 DMA Controller, 8255 programmable peripheral interface, 8253/8254programmable timer/counter, 8259 programmable interrupt controller, 8251 USART and RS232C.

## COMPUTER SYSTEM SECURITY

#### UNIT I

**Computer System Security Introduction:** Introduction, What is computer security and what to l earn? , Sample Attacks, The Marketplace for vulnerabilities, Error 404 Hacking digital India part 1 chase.**Hijacking & Defense:** Control Hijacking ,More Control Hijacking attacks integer overflow ,More Control Hijacking attacks format string vulnerabilities, Defense against Control Hijacking – Platform Defenses, Defense against Control Hijacking – Run-time Defenses, Advanced Control Hijacking attacks.

#### Unit II

**Confidentiality Policies:** Confinement Principle ,Detour Unix user IDs process IDs and privileges, More on confinement techniques ,System call interposition ,Error 404 digital Hacking in India part 2 chase , VM based isolation ,Confinement principle ,Software fault isolation , Rootkits, Intrusion Detection Systems

#### Unit III

**Secure architecture principles isolation and leas:** Access Control Concepts , Unix and windows access control summary ,Other issues in access control ,Introduction to browser isolation .

**Web security landscape :** Web security definitions goals and threat models , HTTP content rendering .Browser isolation .Security interface , Cookies frames and frame busting, Major webserver threats ,Cross site request forgery ,Cross site scripting ,Defenses and protections against XSS, Finding vulnerabilities ,Secure development.

#### Unit IV

**Basic cryptography:** Public key cryptography ,RSA public key crypto ,Digital signature Hash functions ,Public key distribution ,Real world protocols ,Basic terminologies ,Email security certificates ,Transport Layer security TLS ,IP security , DNS security.

#### Unit V

**Internet Infrastructure:** Basic security problems , Routing security ,DNS revisited,Summary of weaknesses of internet security, .Link layer connectivity and TCP IP connectivity , Packet filtering firewall , Intrusion detection.

## Universal Human Values and Professional Ethics

#### UNIT I

**Course Introduction –** Need, Basic Guidelines, Content and Process for Value Education Understanding the need, basic guidelines, content and process for Value Education, Self-Exploration–what is it? – its content and process; ‘Natural Acceptance’ and Experiential Validation- as the mechanism for self exploration, Continuous Happiness and Prosperity- A look at basic Human Aspirations, Right understanding, Relationship and Physical Facilities- the basic requirements for fulfillment of aspirations of every human being with their correct priority, Understanding Happiness and Prosperity correctly- A critical appraisal of the current scenario, Method to fulfill the above human aspirations: understanding and living in harmony at various levels.

#### Unit II

**Understanding Harmony in the Human Being – **Harmony in Myself Understanding human being as a co-existence of the sentient ‘I’ and the material ‘Body’, Understanding the needs of Self (‘I’) and ‘Body’ – Sukh and Suvidha, Understanding the Body as an instrument of ‘I’ (I being the doer, seer and enjoyer), Understanding the characteristics and activities of ‘I’ and harmony in ‘I’, Understanding the harmony of I with the Body: Sanyam and Swasthya; correct appraisal of Physical needs, meaning of Prosperity in detail, Programs to ensure Sanyam and Swasthya.

#### Unit III

**Understanding Harmony in the Family and Society-** Harmony in Human-Human Relationship Understanding harmony in the Family- the basic unit of human interaction , Understanding values in human-human relationship; meaning of Nyaya and

program for its fulfillment to ensure Ubhay-tripti; Trust (Vishwas) and Respect (Samman) as the foundational values of relationship, Understanding the meaning of Vishwas; Difference between intention and competence, Understanding the meaning of Samman, Difference between respect and differentiation; the other salient values in relationship, Understanding the harmony in the society (society being an extension of family): Samadhan, Samridhi, Abhay, Sah-astitva as comprehensive Human Goals, Visualizing a universal harmonious order in societyUndivided Society (AkhandSamaj), Universal Order (SarvabhaumVyawastha )- from family to world family!.

#### Unit IV

**Understanding Harmony in the Nature and Existence –** Whole existence as Co-existence Understanding the harmony in the Nature, Interconnectedness and mutual fulfillment among the four orders of nature- recyclability and self-regulation in nature, Understanding Existence as Co-existence (Sah-astitva) of mutually interacting units in all-pervasive space, Holistic perception of harmony at all levels of existence.

#### Unit V

**Implications of the above Holistic Understanding of Harmony on ****Professional Ethics: **Natural acceptance of human values, Definitiveness of Ethical Human Conduct, Basis for Humanistic Education, Humanistic Constitution and Humanistic

Universal Order, Competence in Professional Ethics: a) Ability to utilize the professional competence for augmenting universal human order, b) Ability to identify the scope and characteristics of people-friendly and eco-friendly production systems, technologies and management models, Case studies of typical holistic technologies, management models and production systems, Strategy for transition from the present state to Universal Human Order: a) At the level of individual: as socially and ecologically responsible engineers, technologists and managers, b) At the level of society: as mutually enriching institutions and

organizations.

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