AKTU B.Tech 2nd Year CE Syllabus for (Civil Engineering). There are six subjects in semester 3 and six subjects in semester 4 means there are twelve subjects in 2nd year for Civil Engineering. In this page you will find all the information about the your syllabus in detail.

## Semester 3

## ENGINEERING MECHANICS

#### UNIT I

Introduction to Engineering Mechanics: Force Systems, Basic concepts, Rigid Body equilibrium; System of Forces, Coplanar Concurrent Forces, Components in Space – ResultantMoment of Forces and its Applications; Couples and Resultant of Force System, Equilibrium of System of Forces, Free body diagrams, Equations of Equilibrium of Coplanar Systems.

Friction: Types of friction, Limiting friction, Laws of Friction, Static and Dynamic Friction; Motion of Bodies, wedge friction, screw jack & differential screw jack

#### Unit II

Centroid and Centre of Gravity, Centroid of simple figures from first principle, centroid of composite sections; Centre of Gravity and its implications; Area moment of inertiaDefinition, Moment of inertia of plane sections from first principles, Theorems of moment of inertia, Moment of inertia of standard sections and composite sections; Mass moment inertia of circular plate, Cylinder, Cone, Sphere, Hook.

#### Unit III

Basic Structural Analysis, Equilibrium in three dimensions; Analysis of simple trusses by method of sections & method of joints, Zero force members, Simple beams and support reactions.

#### Unit IV

Review of particle dynamics- Rectilinear motion; Plane curvilinear motion (rectangular, path, and polar coordinates). Work-kinetic energy, power, potential energy. Impulse-momentum (linear, angular); Impact (Direct and oblique).

#### Unit V

Introduction to Kinetics of Rigid Bodies, Basic terms, general principles in dynamics; Types of motion, Instantaneous centre of rotation in plane motion and simple problems; D’Alembert’s principle and its applications in plane motion and connected bodies; Work energy principle and its application in plane motion of connected bodies; Kinetics of rigid body rotation Virtual Work and Energy Method- Virtual displacements, principle of virtual work for particle and ideal system of rigid bodies, Applications of energy method for equilibrium, Stability of equilibrium.

## SURVEYING & GEOMATICS

#### UNIT I

Introduction to Surveying: Definition, Classification, Principles, Survey stations and Survey lines; Introduction to measurement of distance, direction and elevation; Ranging and it methods, Meridians and Bearings, Methods of leveling, Booking and reducing levels, Reciprocal leveling, distance of visible horizon, Profile leveling and cross sectioning, Errors in leveling; Introduction to methods of plane table surveying; Contouring: Characteristics, methods, uses, computation of areas and volumes. Theodolite survey: Instruments, Measurement of horizontal and vertical angle; Methods of horizontal and vertical control, Triangulation: Figures or systems, Signals, Satellite station, Baseline and its importance, corrections, Trigonometric leveling: Accessible and inaccessible objects.

#### Unit II

Curves: Elements of simple circular curves, Theory and methods of setting out simple circular curves, Transition curves- types, characteristics and equations of various transition curves; Introduction to vertical curves.

#### Unit III

Modern Field Survey Systems: Principle and types of Electronic Distance Measurement systems and instruments, Total Station- its advantages and applications; Global Positioning SystemsSegments, working principle, errors and biases. Geographic Information System: Concepts and data types, data models, data acquisition. GIS applications in civil engineering.

#### Unit IV

Photogrammetric Survey: basic principles, aerial camera, scale of a vertical photograph, relief displacement of a vertical photograph, height of object from relief displacement, flight planning for aerial photography, selection of altitude, interval between exposures, crab and drift, stereoscope and stereoscopic views, parallax equations. Introduction to digital photogrammetry.

#### Unit V

Remote Sensing: Concepts and physical basis of Remote Sensing, Electromagnetic spectrum, atmospheric effects, image characteristics. Remote sensing systems, spectral signatures and characteristics spectral reflectance curves. Salient features of some of Remote Sensing satellites missions. Digital image processing: Introduction, image rectification and restoration, image enhancement, image transformation, image classification. Applications of remote sensing to civil engineering

## FLUID MECHANICS

#### UNIT I

Fluid and continuum, Physical properties of fluids, Rheology of fluids. Pressure-density height relationship, manometers, pressure on plane and curved surfaces, centre of pressure, buoyancy, stability of immersed and floating bodies, fluid masses subjected to linear acceleration and uniform rotation about an axis.

#### Unit II

Types of fluid flows: Continuum & free molecular flows. Steady and unsteady, uniform and non-uniform, laminar and turbulent flows, rotational and irrotational flows, compressible and incompressible flows, subsonic, sonic and supersonic flows, sub-critical, critical and supercritical flows, one, two and three dimensional flows, streamlines, path lines, streak lines, stream tube,

continuity equation for 1-D, 2-D and 3-D flows, circulation, stream function and velocity potential function.

#### Unit III

Potential Flow: source, sink, doublet and half-body. Equation of motion along a streamline and its integration, Bernoulli’s equation and its applications- Pitot tube, orifice meter, venturimeter and bend meter, notches and weirs, momentum equation and its application to pipe bends. resistance to flow, Minor losses in pipe in series and parallel, power transmission through

a pipe, siphon, water hammer, three reservoir problems and pipe networks.

#### Unit IV

Equation of motion for laminar flow through pipes, Stokes’ law, mixing length concept and velocity distribution in turbulent flow over smooth and rough surfaces, Boundary layer thickness, boundary layer over a flat plate, displacement, momentum and energy thickness. Application of momentum equation. Laminar boundary layer, turbulent boundary layer, laminar sub-layer, separation and its control. Vortex Flow: Free & Forced.

#### Unit V

Drag and lift, drag on a sphere, aerofoil, Magnus effect, Similarity Laws; geometric, kinematics and dynamic similarity, undistorted and distorted model studies, Dimensional analysis, Buckingham’s Pi theorem, important dimensionless numbers and their significance. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).

## Technical Communication

#### UNIT I

**Fundamentals of Technical Communication:** Technical Communication: Features; Distinction between General and Technical Communication; Language as a tool of Communication; Dimensions of Communication: Reading & comprehension; Technical writing: sentences; Paragraph; Technical style: Definition, types & Methods; The flow of Communication: Downward; upward, Lateral or Horizontal; Barriers to Communication.

#### Unit II

**Forms of Technical Communication:** Technical Report: Definition & importance; Thesis/Project writing: structure & importance; synopsis writing: Methods; Technical research Paper writing: Methods & style; Seminar & Conference paper writing; Expert Technical Lecture: Theme clarity; Analysis & Findings; 7 Cs of effective business writing: concreteness, completeness, clarity, conciseness, courtesy, correctness, consideration, C.V./Resume writing; Technical Proposal: Types, Structure & Draft.

#### Unit III

**Technical Presentation:** Strategies & Techniques Presentation: Forms; interpersonal Communication; Class room presentation; style; method; Individual conferencing: essentials: Public Speaking: method; Techniques: Clarity of substance; emotion; Humour; Modes of Presentation; Overcoming Stage Fear; Audience Analysis & retention of audience interest; Methods of Presentation: Interpersonal; Impersonal; Audience Participation: Quizzes & Interjections.

#### Unit IV

**Technical Communication Skills:** Interview skills; Group Discussion: Objective & Method; Seminar/Conferences Presentation skills: Focus; Content; Style; Argumentation skills: Devices: Analysis; Cohesion & Emphasis; Critical thinking; Nuances: Exposition narration & Description; effective business communication competence: Grammatical; Discourse competence: combination of expression & conclusion; Socio-linguistic competence: Strategic competence: Solution of communication problems with verbal and non verbal means.

#### Unit V

**Dimensions of Oral Communication & Voice Dynamics:** Code and Content; Stimulus & Response; Encoding process; Decoding process; Pronunciation Etiquette; Syllables; Vowel sounds; Consonant sounds; Tone: Rising tone; Falling Tone; Flow in Speaking; Speaking with a purpose; Speech & personality; Professional Personality Attributes: Empathy; Considerateness; Leadership; Competence.

## COMPUTER SYSTEM SECURITY

#### UNIT I

**Computer System Security Introduction:** Introduction, What is computer security and what to l earn? , Sample Attacks, The Marketplace for vulnerabilities, Error 404 Hacking digital India part 1 chase.**Hijacking & Defense:** Control Hijacking ,More Control Hijacking attacks integer overflow ,More Control Hijacking attacks format string vulnerabilities, Defense against Control Hijacking – Platform Defenses, Defense against Control Hijacking – Run-time Defenses, Advanced Control Hijacking attacks.

#### Unit II

**Confidentiality Policies:** Confinement Principle ,Detour Unix user IDs process IDs and privileges, More on confinement techniques ,System call interposition ,Error 404 digital Hacking in India part 2 chase , VM based isolation ,Confinement principle ,Software fault isolation , Rootkits, Intrusion Detection Systems

#### Unit III

**Secure architecture principles isolation and leas:** Access Control Concepts , Unix and windows access control summary ,Other issues in access control ,Introduction to browser isolation .

**Web security landscape :** Web security definitions goals and threat models , HTTP content rendering .Browser isolation .Security interface , Cookies frames and frame busting, Major webserver threats ,Cross site request forgery ,Cross site scripting ,Defenses and protections against XSS, Finding vulnerabilities ,Secure development.

#### Unit IV

**Basic cryptography:** Public key cryptography ,RSA public key crypto ,Digital signature Hash functions ,Public key distribution ,Real world protocols ,Basic terminologies ,Email security certificates ,Transport Layer security TLS ,IP security , DNS security.

#### Unit V

**Internet Infrastructure:** Basic security problems , Routing security ,DNS revisited ,Summary of weaknesses of internet security, .Link layer connectivity and TCP IP connectivity , Packet filtering firewall ,Intrusion detection.

## Semester 4

## Materials, Testing & Construction Practices

#### UNIT I

Scope of Study of building Materials: building materials and their performance, economics of the building materials.

Stones: Requirement of good building stone, characteristics of building stone sand their testing. Common building stones.

Bricks: Manufacturing process of clay bricks, classification of clay bricks. Properties of clay bricks, testing methods for clay bricks. Problems of efflorescence & lime bursting in bricks &tiles. Different types of bricks.

Gypsum: properties of gypsum plaster, building products made of gypsum and their uses.

Cement: Raw materials used, Process of Manufacturing, Chemical composition, compounds formed and their effect on strength, Types of cement, Testing of cement properties, Uses of cement.

Cement Concrete: Constituent materials and their properties, Grades of concrete, Factors affecting strength, Properties of concrete at fresh and hardened stage, Testing of concrete, Methods of Curing of concrete.

Pozzolona: Chemical composition and requirements for uses, Natural and Artificial flyash, Surkhi(burnt clay pozzolona), rice husk and ash pozzolona, properties and specifications for use in construction. Timber: Classification and identification of timber, Fundamental Engineering Properties of timber, Defects in timber, Factor affecting strength of timber, Methods of seasoning

and preservation of timber. Wood based products.

Asphalt: Bitumen and Tar: Terminology, specifications and uses, Bituminous materials.

#### Unit II

Plastics: classification, advantages of plastics, Mechanical properties and use of plastic in construction. Paints, varnishes and distempers: Common constituents, types and desirable properties, Cement paints. Ferrous metals: Desirable characteristics of reinforcing steel. Principles of cold working. Strength ,Telemechanical, physical Properties and chemical composition. Brief discussion on properties and uses of Aluminum and lead. Glass: Ingredients, properties types and use in construction. Insulating Materials: Thermal and sound insulating material, desirable properties and types.

#### Unit III

Building Construction: Components of building area considerations, Construction Principle and Methods for layout, Damp proofing, anti termite treatment in buildings, Vertical circulation: stair cases and their types and planning. Different types of floors, and flooring materials .Bricks and stone masonry construction. Cavity wall & hollow block construction.

#### Unit IV

Doors and Windows: Construction details, types of doors and windows and their relative advantages & disadvantages. Types of roof and roof treatments, Lintel sand Chhajja, Principles of building Planning.

#### Unit V

Natural Ventilation, Water Supply and Sanitary fittings (Plumbing), Electric Fittings. Heating Ventilation & Air conditioning (HVAC), Mechanical Lifts and Escalators, Fire Fighting and Fire Protection of Buildings. Acoustics. Plastering and its types, pointing, Distempering, Colour washing, Painting etc. Principles & Methods of building maintenance.

## INTRODUCTION TO SOLID MECHANICS

#### UNIT I

Simple stress and strains: Concept of stress and strain, types of stresses and strains, Hook’s law, stress and strain diagram

for ductile and brittle metal. Lateral strain, Poission ratio, volumetric strain, elastic moduli and relation between them. Bar of varying cross section, composite bar and temperature stress. Strain energy for gradual, sudden and impact loading.

Compound stress and strains: Normal stress and strain, shear stress and strain, stresses on inclines sections, principal stress and strain, maximum shear stress, Mohr’s stress circle, three dimensional state of stress & strain, equilibrium equations, generalized Hook’s law-3D, Theories of failure and factor of safety.

#### Unit II

Shear force and bending moment diagrams Shear force (SF) and Bending moment (BM) diagrams for simply supported, cantilevers, overhanging and fixed beams. Calculation of maximum BM and SF and the point of contra flexure under concentrated loads, uniformly distributed loads over the whole span or part of span, combination of concentrated loads (two or three) and uniformly distributed loads, uniformly varying loads.

#### Unit III

Flexural Stresses-Theory of simple bending – Assumptions – Derivation of bending equation: M/I = f/y = E/R – Neutral axis – Determination of bending stresses – Section modulus of rectangular and circular sections (Solid and Hollow), I,T, Angle and Channel sections – Design of simple beam sections.

Torsion- Derivation of torsion equation and its assumptions. Applications of the equation of the hollow and solid circular shafts, torsional rigidity, Combined torsion and bending of circular shafts, principal stress and maximum shear stresses under combined loading of bending and torsion.

Shear Stresses- Derivation of formula – Shear stress distribution across various beam sections like rectangular, circular, triangular, I, T angle sections

#### Unit IV

Deflection of Beams: Slope and deflection- Relationship between moment, slope and deflection, Moment area method, Macaulay’s method. Use of these methods to calculate slope and deflection for determinant beams. Short Columns and Struts: Buckling and stability, slenderness ratio, combined bending and direct stress, middle third and middle quarter rules.

#### Unit V

Helical and Leaf Springs: Deflection of springs by energy method, helical springs under axial load and under axial twist (respectively for circular and square cross sections) axial load and twisting moment acting simultaneously both for open and closed coiled springs. Thin cylinders, Thick cylinders & Spheres: Introduction, difference between thin walled and thick walled pressure vessels, thin walled spheres and cylinders, hoop and axial stresses and strain, volumetric strain. Radial, axial and circumferential stresses in thick cylinders subjected to internal or external pressures, compound cylinders.

## HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING & MACHINES

#### UNIT I

**Introduction :** Basic concepts of free surface flows, velocity and pressure distribution, Mass, energy and momentum principle for prismatic and non-prismatic channels critical, subcritical and super-critical type of flows. Critical depth, concepts of specific energy and specific force. Chezy’s and Manning’s equations for uniform flow in open channel, Velocity distribution, most efficient channel section, compound sections.

#### Unit II

Energy-Depth relationship: Application of specific energy principle for interpretation of open channel phenomena, flow through vertical and horizontal contractions. Equation of gradually varied flow and its limitations, flow classification and surface profiles, integration of varied flow equation by analytical, graphical and numerical methods. Measurments of discharge & velocity – Venturi flume, Standing wave flume, Parshall flume, Broad crested weir, Current meter and Floats.

#### Unit III

Rapidly varied flow: Hydraulic jump; Evaluation of the jump elements in rectangular channels on horizontal and sloping beds, energy dissipater, open channel surge, celerity of the gravity wave, deep and shallow water waves.

#### Unit IV

Impulse momentum equation- Impact of Jets-plane and curved- stationary and moving plates. Pumps: Positive displacement pumps – reciprocating pumps , centrifugal pumps, operation, velocity triangles, performance curves, Cavitation, Multi staging, Selection of pumps

#### Unit V

Rotodynamic Machines, Pelton Turbine, equations for jet and rotor size, efficiency, spear valve, reaction turbines, Francis and Kaplan type, Head on reaction turbine, unit quantities, similarity laws and specific speed, cavitation, characteristic curves.

## Mathematics –III

#### Unit I

**Laplace Transform:**

Laplace transform, Existence theorem, Laplace transforms of derivatives and integrals, Initial and final value theorems, Unit step function, Dirac- delta function, Laplace transform of periodic function, Inverse Laplace transform, Convolution theorem, Application to solve simple linear and simultaneous differential equations.

#### Unit II

**Integral Transforms:**

Fourier integral, Fourier Transform , Complex Fourier transform, Inverse Transforms, Convolution Theorems, Fourier sine and cosine transform, Applications of Fourier transform to simple one dimensional heat transfer equations, wave equations and Laplace equations, ZTransform and its application to solve difference equations.

#### Unit III

**Formal Logic ,Group, Ring and Field:** Introduction to First order logic, Proposition, Algebra of Proposition, Logical connectives, Tautologies, contradictions and contingency, Logical implication, Argument, Normal form, Rules of inferences, semi group, Monoid Group, Group, Cosets, Lagrange’s theorem , Congruence relation , Cyclic and permutation groups, Properties of groups, Rings and Fields (definition, examples and standard results only)

#### Unit IV

**Set, Relation, function and Counting Techniques –** Introduction of Sets, Relation and Function, Methods of Proof, Mathematical Induction, Strong Mathematical Induction, Discrete numeric function and Generating functions, recurrence relations and their solution , Pigeonhole principle.

#### Unit V

**Lattices and Boolean Algebra:** Introduction, Partially ordered sets, Hasse Diagram, Maximal and Minimal element, Upper and Lower bounds, Isomorphic ordered sets, Lattices, Bounded Lattices and , Distributive Lattices. Duality, Boolean Algebras as Lattices, Minimization of Boolean Expressions, prime Implicants, Logic Gates and Circuits, Truth Table, Boolean Functions, Karnaugh Maps.

## PYTHON PROGRAMMING

#### UNIT I

**Introduction:** The Programming Cycle for Python , Python IDE, Interacting with Python Programs , Elements of Python, Type Conversion.**Basics:** Expressions, Assignment Statement, Arithmetic Operators, Operator Precedence, Boolean Expression.

#### Unit II

**Conditionals:** Conditional statement in Python (if-else statement, its working and execution), Nested-if statement and Elif statement in Python, Expression Evaluation & Float Representation.**Loops:** Purpose and working of loops , While loop including its working, For Loop , Nested Loops , Break and Continue.

#### Unit III

**Function:** Parts of A Function , Execution of A Function , Keyword and Default Arguments ,Scope Rules.**Strings :** Length of the string and perform Concatenation and Repeat operations in it. Indexing and

Slicing of Strings.**Python Data Structure :** Tuples , Unpacking Sequences , Lists , Mutable Sequences , List

Comprehension , Sets , Dictionaries

Higher Order Functions: Treat functions as first class Objects , Lambda Expressions

#### Unit IV

**Sieve of Eratosthenes:** generate prime numbers with the help of an algorithm given by the Greek Mathematician named Eratosthenes, whose algorithm is known as Sieve of Eratosthenes.

**File I/O :** File input and output operations in Python Programming

**Exceptions and Assertions****Modules :** Introduction , Importing Modules ,**Abstract Data Types :** Abstract data types and ADT interface in Python Programming.**Classes :** Class definition and other operations in the classes , Special Methods ( such as _init_, _str_, comparison methods and Arithmetic methods etc.) , Class Example , Inheritance , Inheritance and OOP.

#### Unit V

**Iterators & Recursion:** Recursive Fibonacci , Tower Of Hanoi**Search :** Simple Search and Estimating Search Time , Binary Search and Estimating Binary Search

Time**Sorting & Merging:** Selection Sort , Merge List , Merge Sort , Higher Order Sort

## Universal Human Values and Professional Ethics

#### UNIT I

**Course Introduction –** Need, Basic Guidelines, Content and Process for Value Education Understanding the need, basic guidelines, content and process for Value Education, Self-Exploration–what is it? – its content and process; ‘Natural Acceptance’ and Experiential Validation- as the mechanism for self exploration, Continuous Happiness and Prosperity- A look at basic Human Aspirations, Right understanding, Relationship and Physical Facilities- the basic requirements for fulfillment of aspirations of every human being with their correct priority, Understanding Happiness and Prosperity correctly- A critical appraisal of the current scenario, Method to fulfill the above human aspirations: understanding and living in harmony at various levels.

#### Unit II

**Understanding Harmony in the Human Being – **Harmony in Myself Understanding human being as a co-existence of the sentient ‘I’ and the material ‘Body’, Understanding the needs of Self (‘I’) and ‘Body’ – Sukh and Suvidha, Understanding the Body as an instrument of ‘I’ (I being the doer, seer and enjoyer), Understanding the characteristics and activities of ‘I’ and harmony in ‘I’, Understanding the harmony of I with the Body: Sanyam and Swasthya; correct appraisal of Physical needs, meaning of Prosperity in detail, Programs to ensure Sanyam and Swasthya.

#### Unit III

**Understanding Harmony in the Family and Society-** Harmony in Human-Human Relationship Understanding harmony in the Family- the basic unit of human interaction , Understanding values in human-human relationship; meaning of Nyaya and

program for its fulfillment to ensure Ubhay-tripti; Trust (Vishwas) and Respect (Samman) as the foundational values of relationship, Understanding the meaning of Vishwas; Difference between intention and competence, Understanding the meaning of Samman, Difference between respect and differentiation; the other salient values in relationship, Understanding the harmony in the society (society being an extension of family): Samadhan, Samridhi, Abhay, Sah-astitva as comprehensive Human Goals, Visualizing a universal harmonious order in societyUndivided Society (AkhandSamaj), Universal Order (SarvabhaumVyawastha )- from family to world family!.

#### Unit IV

**Understanding Harmony in the Nature and Existence –** Whole existence as Co-existence Understanding the harmony in the Nature, Interconnectedness and mutual fulfillment among the four orders of nature- recyclability and self-regulation in nature, Understanding Existence as Co-existence (Sah-astitva) of mutually interacting units in all-pervasive space, Holistic perception of harmony at all levels of existence.

#### Unit V

**Implications of the above Holistic Understanding of Harmony on Professional Ethics: **Natural acceptance of human values, Definitiveness of Ethical Human Conduct, Basis for Humanistic Education, Humanistic Constitution and Humanistic

Universal Order, Competence in Professional Ethics: a) Ability to utilize the professional competence for augmenting universal human order, b) Ability to identify the scope and characteristics of people-friendly and eco-friendly production systems, technologies and management models, Case studies of typical holistic technologies, management models and production systems, Strategy for transition from the present state to Universal Human Order: a) At the level of individual: as socially and ecologically responsible engineers, technologists and managers, b) At the level of society: as mutually enriching institutions and

organizations.

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